Plant Descriptions
Trees and Shrubs
Abies grandis - Grand Firs reach 80 meters (263 feet) in height.  These trees prefer moist habitats, are shade tolerant, and are most
commonly associated with Doug firs.  They grow naturally throughout the Willamette Valley at low elevations along north facing slopes.

Grand Firs are recognizable by their citrus-like sent, large erect cones that perch atop branches, and 2 rows of needles.  The bark is scaly at
maturity and has a grayish-brown hue with white mottles.

This tree is an excellent species to use in reforestation projects with in the Willamette Valley of northern Oregon and Southern Washington.
Acer circinatum - Vine Maples are small trees or large shrubs that reach 4 meters (13 feet) in height.  This species is found in the Willamette
Valley as an important under story component for tall evergreens such as Doug Fir and Western Hemlock.  They prefer moist, well drained
sites in the shade at low to middle elevations.

Vine Maples are distinguishable by their 5 lobed leaves which are coarsely toothed.  Their seeds are winged fruits in the shape of an
aeroplane propeller.  Young twigs have a reddish hue while older bark is gray in color.  In the fall, Vine Maples put on a spectacular show of
color.

This is a must have shrub for any reforestation project in Washington and Oregon.
Acer macrophyllum - Big-Leaf Maple is a rapidly growing tree that can reach 25 meters (82 feet) in height.  This tree can grow on dry bluffs and
slopes or in rich, well-drained soils.  It is found throughout the Willamette Valley at low elevations and is an ecologically important plant as it is a
host to a wide variety of mammals, birds, and epiphytic plants and fungi.

This tree is easy to identify as its leaves have five lobes, resembling a human hand, and has the largest leaf of all maples, reaching 38
centimeters (15 inches) in diameter.  The seeds are winged and covered in very small, dense hairs that can be quite painful if touched by a
naked hand.

These trees are best used in a forested project located within the Willamette Valley.
Alnus rubra - Red Alder is a  fast growing tree that reaches 25 meters (82 feet) in height.  These trees grow in poor, moist soils and steep
slopes at low elevations throughout the Willamette Valley.  Red Alders can tolerate shade and some drought.  This is a very hardy species.

To identify Red Alders, look for their unique leaves which are egg shaped, broad, and have edges that are coarsely double toothed.  The seeds
are located in a cone-like catkin, while the pollen is formed in male catkins of hanging spikes.

Red Alders are essential species to use in moist forested and riparian areas where erosion control is a factor.
Amelanchier alnifolia - Western Serviceberry can reach heights of 5 meters (16 feet) in areas of full sun with well drained soils.  This shrub is
found at low to middle elevations throughout the Willamette Valley in a wide amount of habitats such as rocky bluffs and shorelines to
meadows and thickets.  

Western Serviceberries can be identified by their tendency to grow in dense colonies.  The shrub has thin, round leaves and dark grey to
reddish bark.  In early spring, the shrubs have white flowers while in fall, dark purple berries take the flowers places.

This is an extremely hardy plant that will grow well in any dry, open site.  It requires very little maintenance and is an excellent food source for
fauna of the area as well as humans.
Arbutus menziesii - Pacific Madrone is a small tree of 15 meters (50 feet).  This tree prefers a southern or western exposure in dry, poor soils.  
Madrones can take full sun and are found throughout the Willamette Valley in low to middle elevations.

The most striking feature of this plant is its bark.  The thin top layers of bark are red and peal back revealing smooth greenish yellow bark
underneath.  Older bark is brown and flaky.  

Pacific Madrones are a must for sites that are dryer with poor soils.  It is most often associated with Salal, Doug-Fir, and Garry Oak.
Ceanothus sanguineum - Redstem Ceanothus is a 3 meters (10 feet) tall shrub that grows in dry or moist open sites.  It can tolerate full sun or
partial shade and will grow in very poor soils.  Often associated with a disturbance such as fire.  This shrub is found throughout the Willamette
Valley at low to middle elevations.

The shrub gets its common name, Redstem, from the color of its bark, which can be red to purple.  The flowers are small and located in groups
at the end of lateral branches.

Redstem Ceanothus has nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with its roots, making it an excellent pioneer plant after disturbances.  It is also a
food source for deer and the flowering twigs can be used as a soap.
Ceanothus velutinus - Mountain Balm is a shrub that reaches 3 meters (10 feet) in height and is related to Redstem Ceanothus.  Mountain
Balm's preferred habitat is similar to Redstems, but must have full sun.  It is also associated with a disturbance such as fire.  The plant is found
at low to middle elevations from British Columbia to California.

This shrub has shiny, sticky leaves that produce a spicy fragrance.  The flowers look like Redstem's, but they are located in groups along the
lengths of side branches.

Mountain Balm is closely associated with fire in that this plant requires it for seed germination.  
Cornus nuttallii - Pacific Dogwood is a tree that reaches 20 meters (66 feet) in height and grows in open or shaded forests. It is found in moist
to well-drained soils along streams or gullies at low elevations on the western side of the Cascades.

The most unique character for identification of this Dogwood is its flowering structures.  Many tiny flowers are clumped together and
surrounded by 4-6 white or pinkish large bracts.  The flowers will produce large, bright red berries in the fall.  They are a good food source for
many birds.

Pacific Dogwood is an excellent understory species for a conifer forested site.
Cornus stolonifera - Red-Osier Dogwood is a freely spreading shrub that reaches 6 meters (20 feet) in height.  It prefers moist soils in
swamps and stream edges in partially sunny areas.  This shrub can grow on the Valley floor to middle elevations of the Willamette Valley.

Red-Osier Dogwood gets its common name from its bright red twigs.  The flowers are small and bunched together, but do not have large,
showy bracts.  In late summer, the flowers produce white berries.

This is a key species in erosion control projects as this plant spreads by runners that hold the soil and will slow water flow, increasing
sedimentation.  It also provides a valuable food source for native wildlife and pollinators.
Crataegus douglasii - Black Hawthorn is a large shrub reaching 10 meters (33 feet) in height.  It prefers moist, open places in full sun.  This
shrub is drought resistant and can stand brief periods of flooding.  Black Hawthorn is found at low to middle elevations from Alaska down to
California.

This species can be distinguished from its invasive English cousin by its thick leathery leaves that are slightly lobed.  They have rough grey bark
and long thorns on the branches.  The flowers are white and clustered, located on the terminal part of the stem.  The fruits are black apple-like
berries with very large seeds.

This species is wonderful in moist forested sites.  The roots grow deep and stabilize the soil, while the flowers and fruits provide a food source
for butterflies, ladybugs, and people.
Trees and Shrubs
Herbaceous
Cornus Stolonifera - Red-Osier Dogwood

Scholls Valley Native Nursery, LLC
PO Box 231088
Tigard, OR 97281

Phone: 503.624.1766
Fax: 503.624.2766
Alnus rhombifolia – White Alder is a fast-growing riparian species that ranges from 5 to 20 meters (16-65 feet) in height.  White alder prefers
more consistently  wet  conditions than red alder.  

White alder is typically multi-trunked, with smooth, grey bark, becoming scaly as it matures.  Leaves are double-toothed, dark green above and
light green below.  In contrast to red alder, its leaves are not inrolled; it also has somewhat smaller cones.  

This is a great species to add structure and diversity to riparian plantings.