Pinus ponderosa - Ponderosa Pine prefers dry open sites west of the Cascades and reaches heights of 61 meters (200 feet). This is an
inland species that ranges in the low to middle elevations. It prefers warm sunny places, but can tolerate severe winters and wet climates.
The bark is cinnamon in color, scaly, and smells like vanilla in the hot sun. The long needles are almost always found in bundles of three.
Ponderosa Pine's cones are egg-shaped, 3-6 inches long, and the scales are tipped with a short prickle.
These trees are important species in reforestation projects as they are long-lived, provide excellent habitat for native wildlife, and can establish
in sites too wet for Douglas-Firs.
Rosa gymnocarpa - Bald-Hip Rose is a spindly shrub that reaches heights of 1.5 meters (5 feet). It thrives in a variety of habitats from
meadows to thickets and even stream banks, but cannot survive in waterlogged soils. The shrub is found throughout the Willamette Valley at
low to middle elevations.
The flowers are small and pale pink to rose colored. The plant is very delicate with numerous soft prickles. In the summer, the flowers produce
orange to scarlet hips.
This species is used as an understory plant in dry to moist forests.
Rosa pisocarpa - Swamp Rose is very similar to Bald-Hip, but it will reach 3 meters (10 feet) in height and prefers sunny or shaded wet areas.
Found throughout the Willamette Valley at low to middle elevations in meadows, thickets and forests.
The flowers are pink and large and borne in clusters at the end of branches. Late in the summer, the flowers produce purplish red hips.
This is an excellent riparian species that is home and a food source to many birds and mammals.
Populus tremuloides - Quaking Aspen reaches heights of 25 meters (82 feet). It prefers moist open woods and along stream beds with
plenty of sun and found in large stands at low to middle elevations throughout the Willamette Valley.
Quaking Aspen its noted for its wide, short leaves and flat leaf stalks, which will allow the leaves to tremble or flutter with the slightest breeze.
This plant forms dense root systems, perfect for sites that require soil reclamation. It also is great for disturbance sites, especially those
affected by fire.
Populus trichocarpa - Black Cottonwood is a large tree reaching heights of 50 meters (164 feet). It prefers low to middle elevation of the
Willamette Valley in moist to wet sites, usually along rivers and streams.
There are several identifying characteristics for this tree, such as it produces a sweet-smelling perfume from its open buds. It also has a
silver color under the leaf that will flash in the wind.
These trees are excellent for wetland restoration to prevent erosion and take up excess nitrogen in the soil. Its perfume will attract
butterflies and birds to the area.
Prunus emarginata - Bitter Cherry is a small tree, which reaches heights of 15 meters (49 feet). It grows on moist sites such as forests or
stream banks at low to middle elevations in the Willamette Valley.
The bark is reddish brown or grey. Its flowers are white or pink, clustered in a flat top about 10 inched across. These flowers produce red
cherries in the late summer.
This is an important pioneer species for logged areas. Bitter Cherry also provides a food source for deer, elk, birds, and many small
mammals (though humans find the fruit too bitter to eat).
Pseudotsuga menziesii - Douglas-Fir is perhaps Oregon's most famous tree. It grows to heights of 70 meters (200 feet). Found at low to
mountainous elevations in the Willamette Valley, it prefers dry to moist sites in full sun.
The most distinguishing feature of the Douglas-Fir is its pine cone. A three pronged bract sticks out between the cone scales. These
cones are almost always present, even in young saplings.
Douglas-Fir is an important reforestation species due to its fast growing nature, provides habitat and a food source for wildlife and the bark
is fire resistant.
Quercus garryana - Oregon White Oak reaches 25 meters (82 feet) in height and grows in dry rocky bluffs and slopes or in rich well-drained
soils. They prefer full sun in the Willamette Valley at low elevations.
These are heavy limbed trees with deciduous leaves that are deeply lobed. They are often short and crooked with light grey bark with furrows
and ridges. The fruits are the acorns, which fall to the ground when ripe in early autumn.
Oregon White Oak is a must for upland restorations as it is a very long lived tree (centuries old) that can tolerate harsh winters, drought, strong
winds, and heavy rains. These trees also provide habitat and a food source for many different types of wildlife. Humans enjoy eating the fruits
Rhamnus purshiana - Cascara is a 10 meters (33 feet) tall erect shrub, which is found throughout the Willamette Valley's bottom to middle
elevations. It thrives as an understory shrub in mixed woods in dry to wet sites.
The leaves of this shrub are strongly veined with a washboard-like surface. The bark is silver gray and has very potent medicinal
properties. The flowers are small and inconspicuous, but the berries are bluish or purplish black. They are edible, but not very tasty.
This shrub is an important component to the understory or reforestation projects and grows well with maples and red alders.
Ribes sanguineum - Red Flowering Current is an erect 3 meters (10 feet) tall shrub that prefers full sun, dry areas throughout the Willamette
Valley at low to middle elevations. This shrub can be found in dry open forests, rock slopes and disturbed sites.
This currant lacks any prickles and has rose colored flowers. They produce rounded bluish black berries with purple mottling. The berries are
not poisonous, but don't taste great.
This plant is fast growing and attracts hummingbirds and other pollinators. It is also drought tolerant.
Trees and Shrubs
Trees and Shrubs
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Philadelphus lewisii - Mock orange is a loosely branched erect shrub that reaches 3 meters (10 feet) in height. It is extremely adaptable and will
grow in open moist forests, to dry rocky soils.
This shrub is found throughout the Willamette Valley at low to middle elevations.Mock orange has opposite leaves and produces white flowers in
June, with a powerfully sweet fragrance.
This plant is excellent for restoration sites due to its extreme adaptability and low maintenance requirements.
Physocarpus capitatus - Pacific Ninebark is an erect to spreading shrub that reaches 4 meters (13 feet) in height. Prefers low to middle
elevations throughout the Willamette Valley in moist open areas of full sun or shade. This shrub can withstand seasonal flooding and drought
and is found in woods, meadows and thickets.
The unique feature of Pacific Ninebark is its bark. Brown in color, it will shred off in layers. Its small white flowers form dense clusters at the ends
This shrub is perfect for areas in which light levels and hydrology fluctuate throughout the year. It is also a fast growing plant that will help
stabilize the soil.